Sacred Texts

Interview with David Life: Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Gheranda Samhita, and Shiva Samhita

 
Lisa Dawn Interview with David Life January 12, 2012:
Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Gheranda Samhita, and Shiva Samhita
 
LDA: Briefly describe these three texts: Hatha Yoga Pradipika (HYP), Gheranda Samhita (GS), and Shiva Samhita (SS), and how, if at all, they have influenced the Jivamukti Yoga Method. 



DL: Svatmarama Svami compiled The Hathayogapradipika from other texts and oral tradition, in the 15th Century CE. It describes 16 asana, along with pranayamas, chakras, kundalini, bandhas, kriyas, shakti, nadis and mudras among other topics. The translation of Pradipika means “light on,” or we could say, “the low-down,” the “secret teachings,” the “real thing.” It is the low-down on how to yoke, or join the sun and the moon. The aim of the practices of Hathayoga, according to the Hathayogapradipika, is to be able to hear the subtle sound- Nadam.

The author of the Shiva Samhita is unknown. Various experts date it from the 16th-18th Century CE. It contains 84 different asana (only four of which are described in detail), prana, pranayamas, yogic philosophy, mudras, tantric practices, and meditation. It emphasizes that even a common householder can practice yoga and benefit from it. The term Samhita means a full collection of Shiva’s wisdom on this subject in a concise form.

The Gheranda Samhita author is unknown as well, but a teacher named Gheranda in the 17th-18th Century CE. taught these 100 practices to his student. This approach is called Ghatasthayoga or Yoga approached through the body. It is approached in 7 steps including kriyas, asana (there are 32 here), mudras, pratyaharas, dhyanas, and samadhis.
 
All of these texts have influenced Jivamukti Yoga directly or indirectly. Most influential is HYP, and from that, the practices of Nada Yoga predominantly. The SS confluence is predominantly found in the yoga philosophy and the householder empowerment. The GS is probably least directly influential, although in the matter of kriyas, and their esoteric significance, it is.

LDA: Overall, are they relevant to yoga practitioners today? 



DL: Well, they would not be on the top of my reading list. The top two spots have to be reserved for the Yogasutras of Patanjali and The Bhagavadgita of Vyasa. For one thing, these texts significantly predate the others, they explore the subject of Yoga more thoroughly, and their study alone could involve many years of dedication.
 
All of the three above – HYP, SS, GS – are more clinical or practical, and focus on techniques. They are totally appropriate for some yoga practitioners and completely inappropriate for others, but relevant to all. What would make them relevant is how an experienced teacher chose to use them as the focus of attention while you were studying yoga with them. If the technical manual arrives with a teacher it changes everything.

LDA: Can they be taken seriously with admonitions like “practice pranayama in a hut made from cow dung” or that “a yogi should avoid the company of women?” 



DL: As far as cow dung goes, don’t knock it if you haven’t tried it. It creates an antiseptic and dust-free zone for sadhana. (Especially important if you live in a hot, dusty, buggy place.) Let’s put this image in context; we are talking about ideas that emerge from the time BCE, and represent common practices at that time. Sure, it sounds strange to us, but how would it sound to BCE’rs to roll out a thin piece of plastic or rubber yoga mat on which to perform your sadhana? Dried cow dung slurry creates a mat-like covering over the earth providing cushion as well as sanitation. I have tried it, and would prefer it to dust, bugs, and stones. However, I do not support the enslavement of cows for their dung, or anything else.

Many of these ancient texts are male-centered. I don’t feel inclined to argue or defend this – it is a fact. Beyond that, modern commentary demands a modern lens. That commentary is in the realm of the teacher. The enlightened mind will help us to discern between the essence of the teaching and the outer garments that may sometimes distract or confuse the unguided student.

LDA: What are the most beneficial practices passed down to us from these three texts? 



DL: Short list: Asana, Meditation, Nada Yoga, Kriya, and Pranayama

LDA: Are the purification practices relevant to yogis practicing today (i.e., some practices may be considered extreme like hrid, dhauti, and basti)? 



DL: Actually, those are not the most unusual or extreme. The word hatha is translated as “force” and hathayoga historically was regarded as a path of force and extremism. The Natha Yogis, of whom Svatmarama was one, were naked mercenaries looking for superpowers but finding samadhi instead.

Each of the kriya has a mundane and elevated level of action and meaning. The true value of the micro experience is it’s cosmic revelation – more than the sum of its parts. All of the practices yield fruit according to degree of intensity, so Guru selects your poison (or, should we say, your amrit?) Then it is our choice to act upon it.

LDA: Can you tell us about your daily practice?

DL: Like I said, it’s a custom designed path suited to each of us perfectly and uniquely. Perhaps, your readers would benefit to know how kriya fit into my daily life. When a dosha is imbalanced the kriya has the power to rebalance it. Simply put, that means that when my nose is running I can use a kriya as remedy, and when I have gas a different kriya can relieve that.

We have found that the gradual constipation and contamination of the physical body through diet and stress is best dealt with by retreating from the world, that is, not working – or even moving around much, unplugging the internet, electric lights, computers and telephones. We create a very simple dietary fast with no stimulants or other drugs and a daily routine of sadhana practice. We perform various kriyas of a colon cleansing nature and spend a lot of time sleeping and meditating as part of that sadhana. We maintain complete silence and this all may last from several days to a month in length each year. You could express that as living in a cow dung hut…without the cows!
 
What I can say for sure about my practice in general is that it has been neither long enough nor extreme enough…yet.

LDA: Are there practices you have tried, just to see what would happen, but don't practice anymore? 



DL: If you just “TRY” a practice it will not work. I found out that much. That’s why they’re called practices and part of the criteria is “consistency, over a long period of time.”

LDA: Where did all of the "other" yoga asana come from if not from these three texts?

DL: Well, these texts do talk about at least 84 different ones and that is quite a lot of them! Certainly many more than most people practice in a day, a week, or lifetime. How many asana there are is an existential question that deserves the answer that Patanjali gives – “It is One, and it is happy and still.”

Remember that all three texts that we are talking about are both derivative and reductive in their presentation of a vast, mostly unrepresented, oral tradition together with archives of thousands of banana leaf treatises that still sit, rotting on dusty shelves neither read nor translated, perhaps soon lost. Where is Lara Croft: Tomb Raider when you need her?

LDA: Is it okay that there are translations of these texts out there if these practices were supposed to be kept secret for success? 




DL: Sure, they are good to have, and to keep secret. Translations are merely one person’s idea of what was meant in the original language. They are both blessing and curse. All of these texts are shrouded in ambiguity, code, vernacular, and metaphor. They are riddles that you cannot solve without the secret decoding ring of guru. Even when you read the descriptions of kriya or asana in the original Sanskrit they don’t make a lot of sense without the commentary and presence of the enlightened mind to illustrate the text for you.

But let’s just say that someone does embark on the practices with ill intention or ignorance and “luck.” It is doubtful that they would have the endurance to achieve mastery…and part of the course of mastery would be a rejection of lesser motives and the removal of ignorance. Yoga Vasistha tells us that “luck” only exists to the deluded ones, and that actually we only get exactly what we deserve according to our own actions. That’s a win-win or a lose-lose, depending on how you look at it.

Pashupa Goodwin

5 November, 2012 - 03:16

This is most excellent! Thanks!

Lisa Dawn Angerame

Lisa Dawn is an Advanced Certified Jivamukti teacher, vegan food blogger, student of the Yoga Sutras, wife and mother. Lisa Dawn discovered yoga 15 years ago and has been on a journey of discovery ever since. After receiving Level 2 certification from Baron Baptiste, she discovered Jivamukti Yoga has been studying and teaching the method ever since. Lisa Dawn has over 1,500 hours of teacher training and is also certified to teach pre and post natal yoga.